Reppucci (1997) In addition, Powell argued for the implementation
of programs with sustained contacts (i.e., at least 3 months) in
order to achieve the most pervasive and sustained effects on family
functioning. This recommendation calls into question the effectiveness
of short parent education classes that are not accompanied by long-term
follow-up or other contacts. (p. 34) See Powell, D. (1989)
Families and early childhood programs. Washington, D.C.:
National Association for the Education of Young Children.
Tomison (1998) Overall, the committee concluded that it
was unrealistic to expect a short-term parent skills program in
isolation to create lasting change (Chalk & King 1998).
(pp. 22-23) According to Chalk and King, The intensity of
the social support services required may be greater than initially
estimated in order to address the fundamental sources of conflict,
stress and violence that occur repeatedly over time in the family
environment, especially in disadvantaged communities. Focusing as
they do on single incidents and short periods of support, the interventions
in this area may be inadequate to deal with problems that are pervasive,
multiple and chronic. (p. 102).
Luster and Youatt (1989)
the results of this study suggest that pre-parenthood
education is one service that shows considerable promise as a way
of helping adolescents prepare for the parenting role. However,
given what we know about intervention programs generally, we would
hope that pre-parenthood education would be viewed as part of a
series of services for parents and parent-to-be rather than a one
time inoculation against poor parenting practices. It
seems highly unlikely that a one- semester course in high school
can provide all the information and support that young people need
in order to provide optimal care for the next generation of children,
but it seems to provide a push in the right direction. (p.
Brown (1998) One reason that relatively small gains for
both children and parents have been found in some two- generation
programs is that program delivery is not intense enough to bring
about the desired change within the allotted time (Ramey & Ramey,
1998). The beliefs that drive parenting practices change slowlyif
indeed parents want to change (Thomas, 1996). Program planners face
the dilemma of providing the level of intensity that is necessary
to reach the goals, knowing that hard to reach parents often are
not willing or able to make that commitment. Many factors influence
participation, enthusiasm and compliance. (p. 10).
Parke et al. (1980) produced a videotape of fathers feeding,
changing and playing with their infant children as a means of enhancing
fathers skills. The results suggested fathers who viewed the
tapes were more knowledgeable and affectionate and displayed increased
care-giving behaviors. Thus, things may be different for males than
females in that males are more open to influence in an area for
which they do not feel expert.
Thomas (1996) Critics have claimed, for example, that simply
providing parents with information about childrens development
and teaching parenting as a collection of skills is not likely to
affect deeper, critical parenting perspectives (Bromwich, 1981).
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